Molecular Biology

written by: Liran Carmel

last modified:

Nucleic Acids
Purine (R) is any of A/G. Pyrimidine is any of C/T.
Enzymes
Helicase. Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms. They are motor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separating two annealed nucleic acid strands (i.e. DNA, RNA, or RNA-DNA hybrid) using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis.

Kinase (also Phosphotransferase). A type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific substrates. The process is referred to as phosphorylation. An enzyme that removes phosphate groups is known as a phosphatase.
Transcription
He et al. developed an experimental technique, ASSAGE, to detect whether transcripts came from the sense or from the antisense strand. They tested five human tissues, and found in all similar levels of antisense transcription (2.5%) and of sense-antisense transcription (16%). Most of the antisense transcription came from exonic or promoter regions (HVK2008).
Literature
Medium Yiping He, Bert Volgelstein, Victor E. Velculescu, Nickolas Papadopoulos & Kenneth W. Kinzler (2008). The antisense transcriptome of human cells. Science 322:1855-1857. PMID: 19056939. web
Not my type of nice papers, but probably important.
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Hydrogen bonds